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Uri Davis — Wikipédia
Professor Jonathan E. Professor Ernest J. Professor Ayesha S. Professor Edward E. Professor William E. The last part of this article focuses on how different approaches to language teaching and learning can be used to make the expected and necessary transition into exolingual situations where language negotiation finds its place within globalised citizenship. The Curriculum, contextualisation et formation des enseignants roughly translated as the Curriculum, Contextualisation and Teacher Training Project mentioned above provides some indications on how these could be implemented through new forms of language teacher training.
Following the catastrophic consequences of Bantu Education 3 , the policy is based on the recognition that South Africa is multilingual and that the mother tongue or Home Language is the most appropriate language for learning.
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Foreign languages can be offered at SAL level and do not include official languages. Unfortunately, the narrow implementation of the policy has undermined multilingual education for several reasons, first and foremost because of the early transition to English medium instruction for a majority of African language-speaking students 4 , resulting in poor learning outcomes 5.
Very often, access to languages beyond English and Afrikaans is not guaranteed, meaning that historically inherited horizontal bilingualism has, to a large degree, been maintained. In short, little has changed in providing upliftment and equity to indigenous African languages at school level. As a result of this situation, the Department of Education introduced a new policy called "The Incremental Introduction of African Languages IIAL in South African Schools", the explicit aims of which are to improve proficiency in African languages; increase access to languages to all learners beyond English and Afrikaans and promote social cohesion, economic empowerment and the preservation of heritage and cultures Department of Education 6.
In terms of the new policy framework, to be implemented from , learners will offer three official languages from the first year of School, one at HL level and two at FAL level. By adding one obligatory African language to the curriculum, the policy constrains learners of all backgrounds to offer at least one African language other than Afrikaans at all phases of learning: Foundation, Intermediate, Senior and Further Education and Training FET phases Grades , Grades , Grades , Grades , respectively.
As noted by the Independent Board of Examiners IEB responsible for the assessment of non-official languages in a submission to the Department of Education, the effects of this policy are potentially detrimental to the teaching of foreign languages at School level, in that the curriculum is overburdened 7. Both the IIAL policy rolled out by the Department of Education to promote the acquisition of African languages as well as the IEB submission to defend the value of teaching non-official languages are based a priori on similar rationales - first and foremost, the promotion of multilingualism, and with it, social cohesion, cultural and linguistic awareness, and tolerance.
Community life takes place mainly in African languages. Learners proficient in African languages are thus able to participate and take leading roles in local institutions and organizations. However the linguistic skills and knowledge acquired in this formal education system are often not compatible with the linguistic skills and competencies needed in other, less formal contexts, especially in the informal sector.
Arguments advanced in favour of the teaching and learning of non-official languages reflect an outward-looking position, cogent of South Africa's aspirations to be a role player on the continent and in the world at large. In this regard, the international status of foreign languages is highlighted in the submission, as well as the "competitive edge" they afford learners on the job market IEB The IEB document further refers to the importance of learning foreign languages in the context of local immigration, outlining the importance of preserving linguistic and cultural minority communities Portuguese, Greek, Jewish, etc.
Here the figure of the Francophone or Lusophone African migrant in South Africa implicitly shifts the argument from high status languages and their respective privileged social enclaves to a more inclusive Africanist agenda. The tensions between these interest groups are borne out of an arguably "overpopulated" school language curriculum, attempting to accommodate as many official language combinations as possible. The resistance to the implementation of this policy highlights local and global agendas which are certainly not mutually exclusive , as well as the tensions and representations particular to high and low-status languages, which are somewhat confirmed by the fact that most SAL are offered on the privileged margins of South African schools, in privately run or former Model C schools.
While the intrinsic social, cultural and linguistic value of learning any foreign language cannot be denied, the receding status of SAL, at the crossroads between local language reform and the hegemony of English perceived as the language of social ascension, distinction and employability both locally and internationally , seems inevitable. Being neither an official, national, nor local African language, French occupies a position in the local imaginary as an "exotic" foreign language, embodying a number of widespread representations and stereotypes, some of which were identified in the research project described below.
Indeed, for many learners, the language represents a prestigious form of linguistic and cultural capital that carries high symbolic and instrumental value.
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In South Africa, learning French was historically a distinctly white, elitist enterprise, due to its "European" status and the fact that it was studied in white schools and universities only 8. In the South African context, Francophonie has been used to describe the developing role s of French within the post-apartheid democratic project and its relation to Africa, viz. It has also been used to describe the emergence of a locally rooted language identity, that is, of African Francophone migrants living in South Africa Vigouroux The reconfiguration of French within the democratic dispensation highlights transnational and transcultural trends linked to migration, globalisation as well as socio-economic priorities.
Within this context, utilitarian and instrumentalist motivations for studying the language have increasingly come to the fore: learners see French as a potential professional asset and, more generally, one which would allow them to participate in global citizenship Horne The undeniable fact that French is an international, super central language, occupying third position in the global language system after English and Spanish, respectively 9 , ensures its dominant position on the language market.
An yet, in spite of the repositioning of French in South Africa as a global and African language, it is taught in relatively few South African schools private and former Model C and only at the discretion of the school itself. Further, the language is being phased out at some of these schools. Over and above institutionalised tradition, this situation speaks to a lack of political and institutional will linked to the prioritisation of local languages at the expense of additional languages. As a result, French has largely remained a "luxury product" by default. Universities and Alliances Francaises offer beginner's courses to adult students and professionals to make up for this gap, but these are rarely sustainable in the long term.
Can learning French make a real claim to promoting multilingualism in South Africa? This would mean both acquiring a level of functional proficiency and integrating and drawing on existing competence and repertoires.
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Preliminary observations would suggest that this is not possible. In general terms, French cannot shape or be shaped by the local environment as it occurs outside this environment, in the somewhat artificial context of the classroom, which for the majority of learners represents the only form of contact with the language. Over and above the structural constraints of teaching SAL, as cited above viz.
The drawbacks of these contexts are evident: learners do not have the opportunity to be "socialised" into the language, much less use it in conjunction with their existing language repertoires. All too often, in spite of teachers' best intentions such as communicative simulations , declarative, passive knowledge does not transfer to procedural, active knowledge. In addition, the late introduction of SAL at school level Senior and FET phases and the limited number of allocated teaching hours, present obstacles to autonomous language proficiency One is tempted to ask: if, on the one hand, learners cannot participate in local communities of practice and, on the other, formalised teaching contexts inhibit true acquisition, in what way if at all can SAL such as French make a claim to promoting multilingualism?
Could it be that the instrumental motivations articulated by learners for learning French are unrealistic? Or do they rather point to an illusory form of linguistic and cultural desire for otherness?
Plurilingual and pluricultural competence. In a world characterised increasingly by multilingual and multicultural environments of which South Africa is a prime example , a body of research around plurilingual pedagogy has opened up new ways of thinking about multilingualism in the classroom. Plurilingual competence, outlined by Coste, Moore and Zarate ; English translation, , is defined as a range of partial and differentiated competence, which fulfil different roles according to language use and communicative function.
This new paradigm is to a large degree replacing an additive notion of language competence associated with the communicative approach and based on the unrealistic model of the monolingual native speaker. This hitherto dominant position is seen as disempowering and unreflective of learners' linguistic and socio-cultural backgrounds.
Plurilingual competence, on the other hand, is defined as the strategic manner in which individuals manage and draw on unbalanced language repertoires, a skill which remains key to building diverse forms of plurilingualism. Within this framework, the notion of translingual and transcultural competence, that is, the ability to operate between languages and cultures, has gained traction MLA ; Kramsch The educational and scientific community in the Southern Africa and Indian Ocean region possesses no recent data on the management of multilingualism in schools, which is what propelled the four-year Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie AUF -funded project entitled Curriculum, contextualisation et formation des enseignants.
The project is devoted to the analysis of the training of language teachers in particular teachers of French in multilingual contexts in the participating countries South Africa, Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion France , Mozambique and the Seychelles. It has the following main research hypothesis: multilingual and multicultural contextualisation 13 is relevant and appropriate only when it mobilises learning to better manage the language contact situation in which the learner lives in the case of South Africa, this refers to the contact between plurilingual learners in and outside the classroom.
The results of the preliminary research literature review and pilot testing undertaken between September and June were presented at a regional workshop in September A preliminary report on the project's first years of implementation as well as the workshop has been drafted Ranaivo, V. The preliminary results, in the form of questionnaires responses from decision-makers, teacher trainers, teachers - an example of this can be found in Annexure 2 - and learners and a focus group with teachers provide a sense of participants' views and opinions on multilingualism. All teachers and trainers of teachers recognise that multilingualism is a government priority, as reflected in school curricula and official policy documents.
However, one teacher notes that this policy "only applies to official languages and Mandarin", pointing to the exclusion of SAL within this framework. A second teacher trainer states that multilingualism "is a hugely underused resource in South Africa [as it develops] cognitive benefits; empathy; work opportunities and social cohesion".
This view is further reflected by a decision-maker who signals the de facto use of English as the language of instruction, business and parliamentary interactions, and the disjuncture between "the priorities on paper and what gets prioritised through resources in reality".
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According to this respondent, "the greatest challenge is the lack of political will on the part of the government to enforce and resource multilingualism". This respondent points to the training of teachers in African languages and the lack of resource materials for effective teacher education as one of the major challenges in the implementation of multilingualism.
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This view stands somewhat in opposition to that of the French teacher working on the ground cited above , who feels that African languages are being prioritised at the expense of SAL. The minor status of the French language within the schools system in South Africa is reflected by responses to the question "Is the development of Francophonie a priority of the educative system? One respondent states that "most decision-makers don't even know that French exists at certain schools".
At the opposite end of the spectrum, a single respondent states that "French is a hugely important language in Africa and key for the African Union as well". Most teachers of French have a Bachelor of Arts degree and a Higher Diploma in Education, which is a general teacher training course offered across the board, for all subjects. Certain teachers have had the opportunity to update their skills through short courses, some of which are offered and sponsored or at least partially subsidised by the French Embassy in South Africa It is unclear whether these short courses propose approaches to multilingualism and multiculturalism.
It was recognised only by the apartheid government. The footage caused outrage when it emerged in in a case that has raised questions about how much attitudes have changed since the apartheid era. The second area that ministers propose to tackle is the apartheid between the system for fostering and the system for adoption. We are under so much pressure here, it's like we are still under apartheid laws. Would the apartheid government really release him?
In South Africa the apartheid government had finally accepted that democracy had to be extended to all. The year-old former head of the liberation struggle against apartheid said his generation was the product of religious education. Christianity Today At one point more than a million Africans were being arrested each year, most on technical and minor violations of apartheid laws.
Sanderson, Stephen K. Macrosociology: An Introduction to Human Societies Trends of apartheid. Nearby words of apartheid. Related terms of apartheid. Translation of apartheid from the Collins English to French.